Marine VHF Radio

Types of VHF sets:

Non-DSC sets

Non-DSC VHF sets on yachts and motorboats will still continue to work, will still be legal to use and certificate holders do not need to do a conversion course until they choose to upgrade. After 2005 Coastguards will cease to monitor Channel 16 in the way that they do now, that is with a dedicated officer on headset watch 24 hours a day, but they will continue to have a loudspeaker watch on channel 16 in the operations room. Increasingly the boat without VHF DSC radio will be at a disadvantage.

A transportable set is an invaluable second radio for use in an emergency when it can be taken into a life raft or used on deck to communicate in a rescue situation. It is useful for safety reasons in a tender when going ashore or in a safety boat when organising dinghy sailing events. A portable set is a good buy for non-boat owners who charter or who go afloat occasionally. They have a limited range but do require licensing and certification. Portable sets with a very limited DSC facility are available. They are intended as an addition to a full VHF DSC set, not as a substitute. Note that the portable set covered by a ship’s radio licence can only be used on the vessel covered by the licence or by its tender(s). It is illegal to use the portable ashore.

VHF DSC radio sets

From 2001 all new non-portable radios sold must be VHF-DSC or be capable of being converted to DSC by the addition of an extra ‘black box’. These are called DSC Controllers. It will provide the digital selective calling (DSC) facility which is the special feature of the new type of set. What this does is to send, on channel 70, a burst of digital signals in a code to ‘call up’ another DSC set. This call can be directed at an individual, using their MMSI, a group of boats or ‘all stations’ in an emergency. Once the link has been established by the digital ‘call’, normal voice   transmission  will be used. The DSC is essentially a new method of establishing communications, more reliably than was possible before. The digital signals are of high radio quality and rapid, the alert taking just 0.5 seconds. It can be used in both routine and distress situations.

There are different classes of controller with varying levels of capability for use in different types of vessel.

The Class D controller is the one designed for use with VHF on yachts and motorboats who make passages within VHF range of the coast. Fitting one of these is not compulsory on private boats. On small boats used at sea commercially, sea school boats for example, it may become a requirement. This will be to the great advantage of their students who will be able to see the sets in use and appreciate their advantages.

Other controllers for VHF DSC are available to meet the requirements of ships. These include Class A and B Controllers, which have enhanced capabilities.

What is the range of the set?

Those sailing across an ocean, or even the Bay of Biscay, need radios that transmit over vast distances. Licensing arrangements are different too.

The range of  transmission  of VHF radio telephones is limited by a number of factors. The height of the aerial is very significant as the propagation of the radio waves is only slightly more than ‘line of sight’. This includes the aerial height of both the transmitting and the receiving station.

When talking from yacht to yacht expect a range of 10 to l5 miles with aerials fitted at the tops of the masts. Those commonly fitted to yachts are known as ‘unity gain’ aerials. They are made of thin wire and often have wind instruments attached. They are recommended because, although the range is not as good as the taller rigid aerials used on motorboats, they cope better with the heeling effect often experienced on yachts! The better range of a ‘high gain’ motor cruiser aerial is only achieved if it is mounted vertically.

It should be possible to talk to a Coastguard station from 30 to 40 miles offshore because of the height of their aerial.

Transmitting range is also affected by the transmitting power of the set. The maximum power allowed is 25 watts. There is also a low power setting, which reduces the transmitting power to 1 watt. This should be used for all short range routine communications. You might think that it is always a good idea to broadcast your signal as far as possible. This it not so. Remember that each channel can only be used for one  transmission  at a time. Powerful signals cause more inference to other radio users. If you are calling another craft nearby or a marina, use low power. Try to use low power for all routine communications. The use of low power does not change the receiving range of the set.

A portable VHF set has yet another type of aerial. This is flexible and will operate at a wider range of angles. The low aerial height and a maximum power output of 5 watts reduces the range of  transmission  of these sets. Between portable radios the range can be up to 5 miles, increasing to 10 miles to a Coastguard station, if there is no land in the way! Remember, with portable radios there is always the risk that the battery will go flat.

The information about ranges of  transmissions  is for average conditions and good circumstances. Ranges can be influenced by:

o Atmospheric conditions, especially high pressure, can increase the range and cause interference from distant stations.

o Land. Boats operating near land may have poor reception with signals being blocked by hills or buildings.

o Incorrect installation of the aerial, or damage to the coaxial cable connecting the aerial to the set, can give poor reception.

o The proximity of other electronic equipment can cause interference.

For these reasons it is best to have the fitting done, or at least checked, by a professional electronics engineer.

A portable radio has a range of 5 miles to another portable, 10 miles to a Coastguard Station.

All distress calls should be transmitted on high power.

Many yachts carry emergency VHF aerials in case of dismasting, which is a very good idea, but failure of the electrical supply is a more frequent problem! The emergency aerial has a plug attached to connect it to the back of the set. For maximum range, situate the aerial as high as possible, but realistically expect a greatly reduced range. When the mast is lost, many people are surprised to hear the radio apparently still working. This is because the co-axial cable is acting as an aerial over a short range, but transmitting without an aerial will damage the set permanently.

A portable radio could be useful under these circumstances!

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Condoms

If there was ever an invention to make sex as safe as possible, it has to be the condom. Not only do they prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, but they’re very effective at preventing pregnancy too. No other form of contraception is so reliable and versatile. So what’s not to love?

Buying them

So you’re shy about asking for them? Supermarkets and gas stations carry condoms these days – you can buy them from a machine in the washroom. Sex clinics give them out by the handful for nothing. And if you still feel weird about getting your hands on condoms – just consider how it would feel buying medicine to treat an STD instead.

Carrying them

Is it presuming too much to take condoms on a date? Frankly, that attitude hasn’t been seen since the fifties. So the girl might realise you do have sex and you wanted it with her. Is that an insult? In any case, you don’t have to take them out your pocket and wave them around. If you get to the point where you need one, you’ll both be happy to see that little foil wrapper, never mind who was carrying it!

Using them

Remember the classes where you practised with a banana? Do yourself a favor, practise with the real thing. Use a whole pack if you need to – keep trying till you know how to get one on properly. You won’t be able to put on a condom if your penis isn’t fully erect – but remember that the penis releases fluid that can spread STIs or contain sperm even before it’s erect. Remember to pinch the ‘teat’ at the end before you unroll the condom down your penis – you might want to leave a bit more space at the top to prevent the condom from splitting. Keep this teat pinched between your fingers as you unroll the condom, and make sure it’s fully covering your penis before and during sex. Don’t feel shy about interrupting your lovemaking to put one on – that pause can only build the excitement!

Last words

Oil based lubes, sharp fingernails, jewellery and out of date condoms are all recipes for disaster. Use a special lubricant. Some people find they have an allergy to latex – condoms now come in allergy-friendly latex-free varieties. In fact, there are now a vast number of different shapes, colors, sizes and flavors of condom. Experiment to see which ones you and your lover prefer – perhaps a ribbed variety for more stimulation or a condom with extra lube for very sensual sex. You should use a condom or dental dam for oral sex too, and change condoms for every new orifice or sex act.

Finally, to get rid of a condom, wrap it and bin it. Never flush a condom down the toilet.

For more information about lingerie please have a look at this link:Exotic Lingerie | Blouses See Thru [http://www.oasislingerie.com]

5 Universal Precaution Measures to Prevent HIV Transmission

Universal precautions are safety measures that are followed for the prevention of the spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other bloodborne pathogens. All samples of blood and body fluids are to be considered infectious while dealing with them. In fact, it was after the discovery of HIV that universal precautions became known to be extremely important in a healthcare setting.

As an employer, it is a major responsibility to ensure that all your health care workers are adhering to universal precautions. While treating patients of HIV or AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus), all employees must have an open mind and focus on leaving all prejudices behind, following universal precautions as usual. There is no room for mistakes for such cases.

Here are five measures to prevent the  transmission  of HIV infections:

• Personal Protective Equipment: Your health care employees must be taught to always use protective clothing when handling HIV/AIDS patients. Protective gear like face masks, gowns, gloves and goggles must be used during occasions where chances of accidental splashing of blood and fluids are high. It is essential to change gloves between patients and procedures to avoid contamination. Make sure all gloves and gowns are in good condition without any holes or tears.

• Equipments and Instruments: Needles and sharp instruments must be used carefully while using them on HIV patients. If any of your health care employees gets an accidental cut or prick, immediate treatment should be started. Gloves are essential as they provide protection. Despite wearing gloves, all sharps must be handled with special care and later disposed in a sharps-container.

• Mouth-to-mouth breathing: Sometimes an HIV patient may have a sudden cardiac arrest and require administration of artificial respiration. Even though there is only a negligible chance of spread of the virus through the saliva, it is still good to be careful. There is a greater chance of  transmission  if the patient has developed a wound in the mouth. Your nurses and doctors must wear gloves and give rescue breaths through respiratory devices in such situations.

• Hygiene: Good hygiene habits must be practiced in your health care facility at all times even while dealing with normal patients. Gloves must be donned before treating a patient and afterwards must be taken off carefully and placed in marked containers. Hand washing with antiseptic soap is a must after handling any patient. In the event of any body fluid touching your skin, a disinfectant must be used.

• Injuries: You must make a rule that any health worker with personal injuries like open wounds or broken skin must avoid dealing with such patients. In case they have to, they must properly cover the injured area to decrease the chances of contracting the infection.

HIV infection results in AIDS, which is a fatal disease. There is no absolute cure for it and therefore great emphasis must be given on strictly following precautionary measures to prevent its spread. Other than the above measures, you must keep your health care employees aware of the latest protective measures used. Following these simple universal precautions can save lives and must not be taken lightly.

The Basics Of Avian Flu

Bird flu or avian flu is an influenza virus type that normally infects birds. However, it can also infect other animals including pigs. Wild birds are natural hosts to the virus and normally don’t get sick from it. But domestic animals such as chickens and turkeys could be severely affected. Humans, on the other hand, can be infected with influenza types A, B, and

C.

Genetic changes and sharing can occur under certain circumstances. This could happen in crowded conditions where poultry, pigs, and people live in close quarters. This change could allow a virus to turn into more infectious to humans. This could also mean that the virus can more easily transmitted from person to person. This is precisely when a pandemic could break out.

The avian flu’s jump to humans was first detected in 1997. Though there have been around 60 human deaths reported, they have been due to transmission from animals to humans. Migratory birds have been detected with the virus and these cannot be caught and killed – these birds have alreadd carried the virus to Europe and Africa. It is difficult to predict when the pandemic could break out – It all depends on when that genetic shift (from birds to humans) takes place.

For now, there has been no detection of this virus in the U.S. It is however possible for travelers to be infected, but most of cases in humans have been in those with closer contact to birds than a casual traveler has. Since the infection occurs via fecal-oral route, people are advised to reduce their risk while traveling by avoiding bird markets, zoos, and areas in parks, where there could be high concentrations of bird feces.

Countries that are the most vulnerable to this flu are Indonesia, Vietnam, and Cambodia, due to their high concentration of bird markets. Other areas include Thailand, China (south and north), Tibet, Kazakhstan, Russia and

Mongolia.

Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to eye infections and pneumonia. If you feel you’ve been exposed, there are a couple of treatment recommendations available today that you may want to discuss with your doctor. Until these are tested in a pandemic, however, their true efficacy is unknown. There are currently no vaccines available, but many companies are working on them.

More information on Avian Flu and preventive measures can be had from Avian Flu Protection [http://www.avianfluprotection.org.uk].

The Motorcycle

A motorcycle is a single-track, engine-powered, two-wheeled motor vehicle. It varies considerably, depending on the purpose for which it is designed, such as sports and racing, long distance travel or off-road conditions. The first motorcycle was invented by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Germany, in 1885. This first petroleum fueled motorcycle was named after Petroleum Reitwagen. It was designed as an expedient test bed for their new engines. This motorcycle was not practical as a safety bicycle, because its steering was zero degrees axis angle with no fork offset.

The construction of a motorcycle should be done in a way that can maximize performance for the lowest cost. Motorcycles now are usually made of telescopic forks, steel, aluminum frames which hold the front wheels and disc brakes. Power engines typically consist of four cylinders and, less commonly, up to eight cylinders, coupled with a manual five or six speed sequential transmission, which drives the swing arm mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt. You can see the speed meter in the middle of the steering and the main headlight in front of motorcycle. The engine is fixed between both wheels and below the seat of the driver. The silencer is usually fixed on right side. There are three types of motorcycles, dual, street and off-road purpose. Dual-purpose bikes are made to go off road and are comfortable on the street as well. Street bikes are sports bikes and scooter. Off-road motorcycles are used in motor-cross and dirt-oriented racing classes.

Motorcycles are one of the most affordable vehicles for transportation all over the world. There are around two-hundred million motorcycles worldwide, and most are used in Asia and the United States. As fuel prices increasing day-by-day, car owners are now moving themselves to use motorcycles instead, because they consume less fuel as compared to heavy vehicles. Motorcycles are usually two-seated vehicles, with one driver and one person sitting behind the driver. Honda, Yamaha, Kawasaki and Bajaj are some of the most famous companies. Motorcycles are available in different powers, 70cc to 250cc. The 125cc to 250cc motorcycles are considered as heavy bikes, which commonly use two silencers, while others have only one.

Motorcycle fuel consumption varies in different models. Which power engine is used on a bike also depends on engine displacement and riding style. In developing countries, 100cc to 200cc motorcycles show a good fuel economy. An Indian company, Bajaj, offers a superior fuel economy model, the XCD125, which consumes one liter of petrol for 100Km. Now, companies have also introduced electric motorcycles, which are nearly silent, zero emission, electric-motor-driven vehicles. However, this technology is under development, because electric motorcycles have less mileage and require a high cost on batteries.

One must use some safety precautions while riding a motorcycle, because it has a high rate of accidents, as compared to automobiles. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System showed that motorcycles are involved in dangerous accidents four times more often than cars and other heavy vehicles. Proper training must be gained before riding any kind of motorcycle. Every country should create a campaign to raise awareness about motorcycle accidents. In South Africa, the Think Bike Campaign has increased motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycle handling on the roads.

Angina – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Angina is a term generally used to refer a kind of tightening sensation. However, there are many sub classes of angina and it all depends on the area, which is suffering from this kind of tightening discomfort. One of the well-known sub classes of angina are like Bowelgina, which is also called abdominal angina. There are also sub classes of angina, which are a threat to life. One such sub class is called Ludwig’s angina, which is caused when the floor of the mouth is exposed to some sort of infection or in other words, dental infections. However, although angina has many sub classes when looked in scientifically, generally, the term angina is commonly used to denote a sub class called angina pectoris. Angina pectoris is a serious pain that is experienced in the torso area or chest.

Symptoms of Angina

The symptoms associated with this disorder are quite difficult to distinguish, as it could range from heartburn or other kind normal chest pain to heavy heart attack. However, the good news here is that there are certain signs, which could be very much helpful in realizing the angina attack. Some people will have to face a big deal of discomfort although they are not subjected to face heavy pain. In common words, angina can be defined as burning or squeezing of torso area, torso tightening, heaviness of chest and choking sensation etc. Usually, these feelings may last not more than five minutes. However, getting an ECG is the best option to identify angina pectoris.

Looking deeper into angina, there are basically two types. The first type is called stable angina, which actually refers to symptoms demonstration after one has worked out his body with some exercises like lifting heavy weight and jogging etc. Of course, the second type is called Unstable Angina. Unstable Angina could be quite dangerous as it occurs without any kind of provocation. It is because of blood clots, which will be released from the blood vessels. In fact, angina itself is a kind of symptom of a heart disorder called myocardial ischemia. It is actually regarding the blocking, narrowing as well as tightening of the blood vessels. To be more specific, it is all about the arteries, which are busy in supplying the oxygenated blood to human heart. When the arteries are narrowed, the blood flow will be quite difficult. In fact, fat is said to be the main culprit usually causing these problems.

Treatment for Angina

The most preferred way of treating angina is aspirin. Aspirin has some blood thinning qualities, which will in turn make the blood flow easy and fast. Hence, the blood will reach all parts of human body. In addition, aspirin will also help to dissolve little blood clots, which are the reason behind angina pains. On the other hand, there are also some other treating methods like magnesium administration, which is usually recommended for mild angina. Magnesium injections are also used to treat severe angina cases. It is strictly advised to consult the family physician before going with any kind of treatment.

Why Are Metals Good Conductors?

Different metals are often employed for various applications because they are known for being good conductors of both heat and electricity. All of the appliances that we find in our homes and workplaces, such as kettles and computers, use metal for one reason or another. But why are they such good conductors? How does it all work?

Generally, atoms will tightly hold onto their electrons, not allowing them to move very much (if at all). In metal, however, atoms hold onto their electrons more loosely, allowing some of them to even be free moving. This is because the electrons form a metallic bond of sorts with each other, creating a moving sea vibrating electrons. They drift aimlessly through the metal, helping to give it it’s various properties, including strength.

Electrical conductivity

This term refers to a metal’s ability to conduct an electrical current, such as in a refrigerator or television. The outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bonded and are free to move through the material. When an electrical current is applied to a metal, it causes the free moving electrons to flow, which allows the current to pass through and be moved on.

Thermal conductivity

This term, on the other hand, refers to a metal’s ability to conduct heat, such as in a toaster or heater. The electrons nearest the heat source begin to warm up, causing them to vibrate fairly fast. In colliding with the cooler, slower moving electrons around them, the hot electrons transmit this heat energy on. Metal is such a good conductor of heat because their electrons are packed so closely together, allowing the vibrations to be passed on very quickly.

Metals are quite often cool to the touch, causing many people to believe that they are actually good conductors of cold, not heat. This, however, is a common misconception – metals are able to quickly absorb heat from their surfaces, including from human skin. It is this loss of heat that causes metal surfaces to feel cold underneath our hands.

When people ask why metals are good conductors of both heat and electricity, the short answer is because of the way their electrons are able to freely move around. To fully get into the specifics of how each element is effectively conducted by different alloys, you would probably have to attend physics classes in order to understand the processes. Having a basic understanding, however, should be enough to show why metal is so useful.

Top 10 Motorcycles Songs

1. Meatloaf – Bat out of Hell

Released in 1979, and again in 1993 it was written by Jim Steinman with lead vocals from Meatloaf. Steinman was insistent that the song should contain the sound of a motorbike engine being revved, and complained to producer Todd Rundgren in the final recording session when it was not added. Rather than use a recording of a real motorcycle, Rundgren himself played the section on guitar, leading straight into the solo without a break.

2. The Doors – Riders on the storm

Taken from their 1971 album, LA woman this song reached number 22 spot on the UK singles chart. The song was inspired by Ghost Riders in the Sky: A Cowboy Legend.”

3. The Eagles – Life in the Fast Lane

This is the third single from the Album Hotel California which was written by Joe Walsh, Glenn Frey and Don Henley and reached number 11 in the Billboard Hot 100

4. Steppenwolf – Born to Be Wild

Born to be wild was Initially released in 1968 and was used on the soundtrack for the famous motorcycle movie Easy rider, staring Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda riding Harley Davidson Hydraglide bikes from 1949, 1950 and 1952

5. Bruce Springsteen – Born to Run

Written in Long Branch, New Jersey in 1974 the song is a love letter to a girl called Wendy. Springsteen himself is a celebrated bike fan. He recently auctioned off his Harley Davidson at the NY Comedy Festival Event ‘Stand Up for Heroes: A Benefit for the Bob Woodruff Family Fund‘ for US$ 85,000.

6. Rush – Ghost Rider

This song is based on the motorcycle story Ghost Rider: Travels on the Healing Road. by Rush’s drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. Peart embarked on a 14 month 55,000 mile motorcycle journey across America after losing two of his family members.

7. Manic Street Preachers – Motorcycle Emptiness

This single by Welsh Rock band Manic Street preachers was inspired by a book by SE Hilton called Rumble Fish and is about biker gang culture. The lyrics have been interpreted by some as an attach consumer/capitalist lifestyle and how young people are expected to conform.

8. Shangri-Las – Leader of the Pack

This song became number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in November 1964 and is about a girl called Betty who is seeking her parent’s disapproval by dating Jimmy, the leader of a motorcycle gang. Her parents claim he is from the “the wrong side of town” and will be a bad influence on her.

9. Bob Seger – Roll Me Away

Roll Me Away was written in 1982 by Bob Seger on the album The Distance by Bob Seger and the Silver Bullet Band. Tit reached number 27 on the Billboard Hot 100 char

10. Prince- Purple Rain

The song Purple Rain, taken from the album of the same name reached number 2 in the America charts. The album was thought by many as among the best rock albums ever it was ranked by Rolling Stone Magazine as the second best album of the 1980s.

About Purchasing Wipes for Your Gym

Your gym is a resource for people who want to stay in shape or improve their body and health. It can be a haven for people who love to work out and come to exercise classes, and a place for people to meet, socialize and learn about health and nutrition. Your gym, in other words, is more than just a business- it can provide a lifestyle for your clients. In order to manage your gym efficiently and to help ensure that customers like coming there, it is important to maintain your gym and keep it clean at all times. It is also important to offer conveniences to your customers that they will appreciate. One way to both offer a benefit to customers and to help keep your gym clean is to purchase wipes for your gym.

Wipes for Your Gym

When you purchase wipes for your gym, there are a few different kinds of wipes that you should consider. Perhaps the most obvious type of wipes to buy are gym wipes. Gym wipes are designed for cleaning gym equipment between users. Your customers can grab a gym wipe from a convenient dispenser and wipe down the equipment so that it is clean and dry for the next person who wants to make use of the machine.

Gym wipes serve many important purposes in the gym environment. They allow for the machines to stay clean and safe to use, and they help customers to feel more comfortable making use of the equipment. No one wants to grab sweaty equipment that someone else has just been using without wiping it down first, and gym equipments make this easy. Equipment that is slick with sweat can also be dangerous, so gym wipes help to make your gym a safer place. Finally, because the equipment is cleaned more frequently with gym wipes, it will always appear clean to perspective members visiting the gym and to members who want a pleasant environment at the gym. Cleaning at the end of the day will be easier as well, since the machine is already clean from being wiped down with gym wipes.

In addition to gym wipes, you may also wish to purchase antibacterial wipes or hand wipes to keep around your gym. Like gym wipes, these have many purposes and many benefits to customers. For one thing, they can help to stop the transmission of germs. When people use gym equipment and sweat on that equipment, they leave behind more than just their perspiration- they also leave behind any bacteria, viruses or other organisms that were on their hands or body. This can cause other patrons at the gym to be exposed to these disease-causing organisms. Recent outbreaks of swine flu and other contagious diseases have underscored the importance of always making sure that you are protected from germs.

Customers will also appreciate the opportunity to use an antibacterial wipe to wipe their hands rather than having to go to the bathroom to wash them. This makes for good customer service and can help to improve the gym experience.

The First Steps Towards Becoming A Working Actor

So your bags are packed and your next destination is Hollywood to pursue your life long dream of becoming a movie star. No one will say its an easy road to take, so hats off to you for going through with this journey. This article will save you a lot of time in preparation when you make it there. The first thing you need to do is land an agent. Listed below are the four main things you need to have/do in order to get that agent.

ACTING CLASSES

Before an actor becomes an actor, they are put in training. The same way a boxer conditions his or her body to become a better fighter, an actor trains through acting classes, to hone his or her craft.

Acting classes are the basics, where you start before anything else if your desire is to become an actor. You develop your skills using various techniques to mentally train your mind to transform yourself as a person saying words written on paper, into a person living in a moment of truth. There is no single method or technique that is correct; it’s all about finding the approach that works for you. Again, just like every boxer has a unique style, every actor brings something different to the table. Whether you identify with Sanford Meisner, Constantin Stanislavski, Lee Strasberg, Stella Adler, or somebody entirely different, a great acting program will offer one or a combination of the techniques that work for you.

HEADSHOTS

The first thing an agent or casting director look at (whether finding new talent or filling a role) is a headshot.

A headshot is an accurate picture of you, representing your physical attributes. A headshot photo is often of one’s face, but just as fashion trends come and go, headshot framing can be trendy as well. Another great reason to have a current photo, is so that you don’t seem outdated in terms of style, color, and formatting. A person’s entire body can be used in a headshot when submitting to a modeling agency.

A “look” is an actor’s demeanor in a photo. If an actor wishes to audition primarily for comedic roles, the photographer will direct him into a playful mood, capturing images of the actor smiling, and perhaps looking a bit goofy. For action roles, the demeanor could be more intense and serious. This is not necessarily a rule, but rather a way of creating an advantage for those going after specific roles.

When just beginning a career, it is crucial to have a variety of photos to demonstrate versatility and to open up as many doors as possible. Don’t pigeon-hole yourself right away, but at the same time, be honest with yourself. Know what you can and can’t do as an actor and get pictures that correlate with your repertoire of skills.

At the very least, an actor just starting out needs a commercial shot (generally a smiley picture used for commercial auditions) and a theatrical shot (generally more serious, used for film and television auditions).

ACTING RESUME

An actor’s resume displays the work they have done. A rule of thumb in the industry is to have your resume stapled at the corners and behind your headshot, making a clean attachment for casting directors and agents who sift through hundreds of headshots, looking for that person with the right look for a particular role. Although almost all submissions are digital these days, having hard copies of your picture and resume is still expected.

Your resume should consist of only the most the basic info: your name and contact information (either personal phone number and/or email address, or that of your agent/manager). If you belong to SAG-AFTRA you should indicate that as well. Putting your height, weight, and hair/eye color used to be standard, but has begun to phase out.

List the most prominent productions you have been involved in, and the details should be broken down into different headings: Film & TV, Theater and New Media (web series). Once your credits begin to grow, the heading of Film and TV can be broken up into two categories. Next you should list your training. Acting classes, theatre, voice over training, etc.

Lastly, the most commonly overlooked section of a resume: Special Skills. Here is where you can brag about hidden talents you have, or cash in on ordinary talents. List the sports you play, the games you know, the accents you can do, the languages you speak, etc… You’d be surprised how many actors can book a role simply because they know how to hula hoop or, believe it or not, drive a manual transmission. You can also use this section to be creative and write something that will stand out and make you memorable. If you can freestyle rap, for example, that’s a great way to grab attention on a resume, just be prepared to show it off if and when you’re asked about it. DO NOT LIE on you Special Skills section. It will only hurt you in the long run.

Now here’s the catch 22. You need an agent to get work, but you can’t get work without an agent. So how do you get work without an agent to start? I’ve been in this predicament, and had an agent call me and tell me this exact bit of information.

“A good agent won’t represent somebody who doesn’t have an acting background, even if you found one that did, you don’t want that type of agent representing you. You need to focus on building your resume. Get enrolled in some acting classes, and for work, try looking into either Craigslist to get involved in any student films, or lacasting.com and do some extra work. All of this will help build your resume and show you are serious about acting.”

DEMO REEL

After you feel you’ve taken enough acting classes, had your headshots taken, it’s time to start looking for representation. It’s very difficult getting represented by an agent with just your headshots, resume and acting training. You need a video montage of you showing off your acting chops. This where a demo reel comes in handy.

A demo reel is a collection of scenes edited together to showcase the ability of an actor. Demo reels are also made for directors, cinematographers and editors as well. For an actor, a demo reel can be used to show their genre range, mixing in various works they have done from dramatic to comedic. They can also be tailored to represent an actor in one complete genre, such as an all action genre reel. This usually comes only after the actor has enough credits to warrant separate reels.

A good demo reel is usually between three to five minutes in length and displays anywhere from six to eight scenes. Sizzle reels, are a trimmed down version of a demo reel, usually running no more than one minute in length with music overlaying the edited footage giving a “teaser” type effect. Sizzle reels are becoming quite popular, as they are quick and stylish. It is good to have both, as every agent has their own reservation for what they want submitted.

The biggest mistake people make in getting their demo reel made is that they over do it. Often times I’ve seen demo reels consisting of scenes of a person screaming at the top of their lungs or crying, or holding a gun and shooting someone. A great demo reel should be 2 things, subtle and entertaining. Keep that in mind. And always lead with your best stuff, either your most impressive credit, or the clip(s) that showcase you the best. Remember, the person watching the reel doesn’t love you as much as you might love yourself, and isn’t likely to watch the entire thing, no matter how short it is.

TIME TO GET AN AGENT

At the end of it all, you’ve got enough acting classes under your belt, you have a great new headshot, your resume is substantial and growing, and you have a reel that represents you well, it is now time for you to find an agent. You can check out our updated Agent list. We hope this article has been a good source of information to you. Check out our site for other articles related to the world of acting. Good luck on your journey, looking forward to seeing you on the silver screen!